15 November 2017

Time to leave Lenin behind

In the beginning was the proletariat.  And the proletariat was with God, and the proletariat was God.  The proletariat was in the beginning with God.  All things are made by the proletariat, and without the proletariat nothing gets made that is made.  In the Labor of the proletariat is wealth, and that wealth is the foundation of Capital.  Wealth flows from Labor to Capital but Capital shares it not, except for a trickle downward that smells suspiciously like piss.

The Russian and Iranian Revolution shared the factor of the working class, the proletariat, being its main strength and backbone.  Likewise, both revolutions turned on these foot-soldiers and destroyed their freedom, and in many cases their very lives.

The central tenets of Leninism are state capitalism, Taylorism, democratic centralism, and the party as the vanugard of the proletariat.  Lenin was a fairly effective propagandist, one of the best in the world in fact.  It would have been nice if he’d meant a damn thing he said. 

The tools for the establishment of socialism, first and foremost control of the means of production by the workers and of the military by the soldiers and farms by the peasants, were already in place in the spring of 1917.  After the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks destroyed these.  In the case of industrial workers, the classic proletariat, Lenin and the Bolsheviks took control of the means of production from the workers and placed it in the hands of the state.  Lenin remarked in several writings that the ideal at this stage was the state capitalism of the Prussian Junkers, the very people against whom Marx first rose.  God forbid anyone violate ideological protocol by taking advantage of existing workers’ control to build a system based upon that very thing.  Much better to destroy that budding socialism in order to save it.

After taking away control of the means of production, Lenin outlawed independent trade unions and instituted the form of work management know then as Taylorism.  In Taylorism, individual workers have to account for every single minute of their workday with bosses micromanaging their time and methods of work.  Taylorism at the time was one of the main targets against which trade unions in the UK and USA were then struggling.

In democratic centralism, the emphasis is on centralism  Sometimes literally in writing.  This means that a central organ or “collective” makes a decision and all subordinate bodies have to fall in line.  Within Russia itself, decisions were made by the five members of the political bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, and all subordinate bodies of the party were expected to fall in line.  Kind of like the way the Democratic National Committee in the USA demands of the members of its party. 

Democratic centralism was adopted explicitly by the Russian Communist Party in 1921, but the year before, Zinoviev, then Lenin’s right-hand, had imposed it as standard operating procedure upon the new Third or Communist International, thereby subordinating the interests of working class people in other countries and the working class in general to those of the Russian Communist Party, or more specifically, to that party’s five member Polituro.  The Comintern ceased to be anything but a tool from thence forward.

Nowhere in Marx or Engels is there anything about a party of intellectuals and professional revolutionaries acting in the name of working people as the vanguard of the proletariat.  That was an invention of Lenin all on his own.  Because, you know, how dare the workers—and peasants and soldiers—act without the guidance of their betters who know more about what’s better for them than they themselves, just as in capitalist society the bourgeois know better than the proletariat and in agrarian society the planter and the landlord know better than the slave and the peasant.

Leninism and its offspring, Trotskyism, Stalinism, Maoism, etc., did not come to fullfill the socialism but to destroy it.

And Karl Marx had a comment relevant to those who cling to the illusions of the past the way too many would-be socialists cling to the discredited ideas of men a century dead.  In “The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte” of 1852, Marx wrote, “The tradition of all dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the brains of the living.  And just as they seem to be occupied with revolutionizing themselves and things, creating something that did not exist before, precisely in such epochs of revolutionary crisis they anxiously conjure up the spirits of the past to their service, borrowing from them names, battle slogans, and costumes in order to present this new scene in world history in time-honored disguise and borrowed language.”

I want the needs of the many to outweigh the greed of the very few.  I want a national health service and hospitals run by nurses, committees of practicing nurses rather than by administrative specialists.  Doctors should be subordinate to nurses, in charge of medical issues only.  Whether owned by the state or the workers themselves, I want the means of production to be run by the workers for the benefit of themselves and their community and the world around them.  I want a legal system in which the state finances defense of the accused at the same level it finances prosecution.  I want an America disarmed with Australian-style gun control and police forces dominated by unarmed officers trained in de-escalation tactics.  I want free education for all at all levels.  I want an end to private prisons, private schools, private probation agencies, private food production, private armies, private corporations.  In a free market, the only things free are the corporations.

Contrary to the pompous pronouncements of its detractors, the Occupy movement achieved its purpose, one which conservatives, neoliberals, and the media cannot co-opt, subvert, undercut, or cast as a reflection of themselves.  Concensus councils, free lending libraries, and communal organizations of the Occupy camps were not the point, which the 1% now find buried in their chests, figuratively speaking.  Occupy changed the conversation from evaluating the worth of individuals by how much profit they can make for the few to focus on correcting the results of the gross inequality that ideology created and ending the Second Gilded Age.


One Nation Under Fire

A week and a half ago, an entitled white male conservative Christianist in Sutherland Springs, Texas, here in Neverland attended Sunday morning service with his AR-15 and several extended clips of ammunition.  When he left, 27 people were dead and another 20 wounded.  

Thoughts and prayers.  Thoughts and prayers. Moment of silence.  Thoughts and prayers.  

By the end of the week, the massacre was no longer featured in the news as various news outlets found fresh sets of shiny new keys to jangle in front of the masses.  

Thoughts and prayers.  Thoughts and prayers. Moment of silence.  Thoughts and prayers.  

As of this writing, 1608 EST on 15 November, guns have killed 13,579 people in 2017 and wounded 27,679 more, including 317 mass shootings but not counting the 22,000 annual average suicides by gun.  Count those and the body count rises to 35,579, more than twice the death rate among American military personnel in Viet Nam in the peak year of 1968.  

Thoughts and prayers.  Thoughts and prayers. Moment of silence.  Thoughts and prayers.  

But, God bless America, at least we still have our guns.  

Thoughts and prayers.  Thoughts and prayers.  Moment of silence.  Thoughts and prayers.  

And that’s all we in America are going to do about it: think, pray, and remain silent.  Silent, like the darkness of a sealed tomb.

01 November 2017

Col. Clift's 7th Tennessee, U.S. Army

During the early months of the War of the Rebellion, East Tennessee (and, curiously, northern McNairy County in West Tennessee) were the two hotspots of diehard Unionist sentiment in the state.  After the state seceded from the Union, the two most troublesome regions for Confederate authorities in the State were Scott County, bordering the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and northern Hamilton County.  In the latter, after the state’s secession, Col. William Clift raised the county’s 7th Tennessee Militia for the Union.  He was sixty-seven years old.

First secession vote in Tennessee

On 8 February 1861, the six former U.S. states that had seceded from the Union thus far—South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana—voted to join together as the Confederate States of America.

The following day, 9 February, had already been scheduled for a vote in Tennessee on the question of whether the state should secede from the Union.  The vote was pushed forward by the extremely pro-secessionist governor of the state Isham Harris.  The rebel sympathizers were soundly defeated by 69,675 citizens voting against calling a convention to formulate articles on independence and secession versus 57,798 in favor.  The difference was most pronounced in East Tennessee, with only two counties (Sullivan and Meigs) in favor.

A nation at war with itself

On 15 April 1861, POTUS Abraham Lincoln called up troops to restore the seceding states to the Union.  On 6 May 1861, the Tennessee General Assembly voted voted again on whether to call a secession referendum, and this proposal passed.  A subsequent related bill that day authorized the creation of the Provisional Army of Tennessee.

On 30 May 1861, twenty-nine counties from East Tennessee (all thirty minus Rhea) plus the Middle Tennessee county of Macon began to hold a convention in Knoxville to discuss counter-measures.  Its second and final day featured then Senator and later President Andrew Johnson, with delegates agreeing to meet again.  Action was postponed until after the statewide secession vote the following week.

On 8 June 1861, Tennessee held its referendum with voters reversing themselves to give Gov. Harris and his fellow secessionists a very clear majority.  Only six counties in East Tennessee (Sullivan, Monroe, Polk, Meigs, Rhea, and Sequatchie) voted in favor.  Hamilton County and the county seat of Harrison voted against it, while the small town of Chattanooga, a major railroad center and burgeoning manufacturing municipality, voted affirmative.

The East Tennessee Convention reconvened on 17 June 1861 at Greeneville, Greene Co. There the most radical and vociferous delegate was Hamilton County’s own William Clift, a rich planter and entrepeneur who owned a huge plantation in the northern county (his home was near Soddy), but only five slaves.  Clift proposed the counties in East Tennessee unilaterally secede from Tennessee, form their own state government, and fight the Confederacy.  In the end, the delegates voted to separate only with the agreement of the state government and sent the request to Nashville on 20 June 1861.  Their request was summarily rebuffed on 29 June.

First Clift War

At the outbreak of the war, William Clift already bore the rank of colonel as an honorific after having been commander of the county’s militia for a number of years.  After Unionist refugees from Hamilton and surrounding counties began stopping by his plantation either as a layover on a trip north or for more permanent refuge, Clift took over the Sale Creek Camp Ground of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church.  There, on 10 August 1861, he mustered the 7th Tennessee Militia and renamed it the 7th Tennessee Federal Militia.  His troops began building a camp, including breastworks.  Two of his sons joined; the other two and all three of his sons-in-law enlisted in the Confederate army. 

In early September, the military authorities in Knoxville, set of the District of East Tennessee in the Confederacy and of the Department of East Tennessee under the Provisional Army of Tennessee, sent down orders for Clift’s camp to be dispersed.  Accordingly, the officials in Hamilton and the surrounding counties sent local companies to enforce the dispersal under Capt. William Snow of Hamilton County, Capts. Crawford and Gass of Rhea County, and Capt. Rogers of Meigs County.  In all, there were about three to four hundred men, under the overall command of Col. James W. Gillespie of Euchee, Rhea Co., Tennessee, Clift’s friend and fellow plantation owner and Assistant Inspector General of the Provisional Army of Tennessee.

When the four companies arrived in the vicinity of Sale Creek, third parties intervened to negotiate a nonviolent solution.  On 19 September 1861, Col. Clift and Col. Gillespie signed the Crossroads Treaty at Smith’s Cross Roads (now Dayton), in Rhea County.  This treaty read:

Whereas, the State of Tennessee has separated from the United States, by a vote of a large majoriy of the citizens of the State, and adopted the permanent Constitution of the Confederate States of America; and we, as members of the Union partly believing that it becomes necessary for us to make an election between the North and the South, and that our interests and sympathies and feelings are with our countrymen of the South, that any further divisions and dissentions among us. the citizens of East Tennessee, is only calculated to produce war and strife among our homes and families, and desolation of the land, without any material intluence upon the contest between the North and the South.

We hereby agree, That we will in future conduct ourselves as peaceable and loyal citizens of the State of Tennessee, that we will oppose resistance or rebellion against the Constitution and laws of the State of Tennessee, and will use our influence to prevail upon our neighbors and acquaintances to co-operate with us in this behalf; We have been assured by the military authorities of the State, that no act of oppression will be allowed toward us or our families, whilst we  continue in the peaceable pursuits of our several domestic occupations.”

Thus ended the First Clift War.

It was not long, however, before men began reassembling at the Sale Creek Camp Ground and rebuilding their camp, this time including earthworks and a small homemade cannon, probably enough for it to count as the first Civil War fort in the area; we’ll call it Fort Clift.  After Snow’s Company began attacking area Unionists, Clift’s militia responded, but only on a small scale, and the two opposing units never actually fought each other.

East Tennessee Bridge Burnings

The first action of the war which directly affected the Chattanooga country occurred on 8 November 1861 when two railroad bridges across the South Chickamauga Creek were burned by Unionist sympathizers.   Unionists in East Tennessee directed by William Carter of Knoxville were going to destroy nine major railroad bridges in East Tennessee and one in North Georgia to ease the way for an invasion by troops in the Department of the Cumberland under the command of Brig. Gen. William T. Sherman.

The bridges targeted in East Tennessee were those over the Holston River at Union Depot (Bluff City, Sullivan County); over the Watauga River at Carter’s Depot (Watauga, Carter County); over Lick Creek, near Mosheim in Greene County; over the Holston River at Strawberry Plains; the Tennessee River at Loudon; over the Hiwassee River between Calhoun and Charleston; two bridges over Chickamauga River near Chattanooga; and over the Tennessee River at Bridgeport, Alabama.  Another team was detailed to burn the bridge over the Oostanaula River at Resaca, Whitfield County, Georgia.

Locally, Alfred Cate of Bradley County led the attack on the bridge of the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad over the Hiwassee River between Calhoun, McMinn County, and Charleston, Bradley County.  Meanwhile, William T. Cate and W.H. Crowder destroyed two of the three bridges of the Western and Atlantic Railroad over the South Chickamauga Creek in Hamilton County.  Robert B. Rogan and James D. Keener, approaching the bridge of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad over the Tennessee River at Bridgport from the Marion County, Tennessee, side were unable to burn the bridge at Bridgeport, Alabama, due to a large encampment of enemy soldiers nearby.

The bridges over the Hiwassee and the Chickamauga were destroyed, along with those over Lick Creek and over the Holston at Union Dept.  Unfortunately for the saboteurs, Brig. Gen. Sherman got cold feet.  However, fear of “Tory” jayhawkers spread quickly throughout East Tennessee.

Second Clift War

At the time of the bridge burnings, the only regular military forces in the area were the 7th, 8th, and 9th Regiments, East Tennessee Infantry (later the 37th, 38th, and 39th Regiments, Tennessee Infantry), the third of which was only partial.  They were under the temporary overall command Brig. Gen. William H.H. Carroll, Inspector General of the Provisional Army of Tennessee.  None were as yet armed and equipped.  Accordingly, Confederate military authorities ordered the 7th Alabama Infantry under Col. S.A.M. Wood up from Pensacola, Florida, and the 16th Alabama Infantry under Col. William B. Wood down from Virginia to take care of the “Clift threat”. 

In addition, several local companies raised for Confederate service but not yet mustered in were called up for the anti-Clift operation.  These were the companies of Capts. William L. Brown and Charles Hardwick of Cleveland, Bradley County, Capt. McClellan of Charleston, Bradley County, Capt. Robert McClary of Polk County, Capt. Smith of McMinn County, and Capt. George W. McKenzie of Meigs County, plus two companies of Rhea County Home Guards.  These local companies were under the command of Col. James W. Gillespie, who had resigned as assistant inspector general, and Col. William H. Tibbs of Cleveland (later of Dalton, Georgia, and last living former member of the Confederate Congress).

Muster all the armed forces possible without calling on Zollicoffer, and capture Clift and his men, dead or alive.

Col. S.A.M. Wood, the senior commander of the operation, planned for the 7th Alabama Infantry to cross the Tennessee River at Chattanooga while Col. W.B. Wood and the 16th Alabama Infantry crossed it at Cottonport, Meigs County.  He ordered Cols. Gillespie and Tibbs cross with their companies eight miles above and below where his own regiment did.  The idea was to keep anyone from escaping the net. 

Capt. McKenzie’s calvary company served the 16th Alabama Infantry as scouts, acting under direct command of Maj. Alexander H. Helvenston of the second battalion of that regiment.  He and his company crossed north of Cottonport at Old Washington, the now all but deserted original seat of Rhea County and then a bustling town.  There he found two companies of Rhea County Home Guards.  Leading these, he proceeded to Smith’s Cross Roads, about fifteen miles north of Fort Clift.  He reported being told there were about five hundred men with Clift and another one thousand in the moutains.

On the morning of Friday, 15 November 1981, forward elements of the 7th Alabama Infantry encountered McKenzie’s company and the Rhea County Home Guards at the Sale Creek encampment and briefly exchanged fire before recognizing each other.

Capturing five stragglers from Clift’s 7th Tennessee Federal Militia, Col. S.A.M. Wood learned that the “Tories”, having learned of the 1500-2000 pressing in on them, took a vote on what to do; there were around two hundred there at the time.  Afterwards, Col. Clift, Lt. Col. William Shelton, and ten others went into the hills to continue fighting.  Capt. Robert Sullivan, a regular army officer who provided liaison with the Department of the Ohio in Kentucky in addition to leading one of the companies, led north over a hundred who voted to go to Kentucky and enlist; the remaining men voted to disperse and did so. 

Thus ended the Second Clift War.

There were reports of activities by Clift’s diminished band in the area well into January 1862.

7th Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, USA

By May 1862, Col. Clift was behind Union lines in Kentucky.  Authorized by the Secretary of War to raise a regiment of partisans from among the Hamilton County refugees and men of Scott, Anderson, and Morgan Counties, Tennessee, Col. Clift established his headquarters outside of Huntsville, seat of Scott County.  Clift’s direct superior was Brig. Gen. George W. Morgan, commanding the 7th Division of the Army of the Ohio.

The county in which Clift established himself had been known since late 1861 as the Free and Independent State of Scott.  After the State of Tennessee voted to secede, the county held another vote and chose by a landslide to secede from the state to remain in the Union.  It also lay conveniently at the head of Sequatchie Valley.  It officially reunited with the State of Tennessee on 4 May 1986, making forty-five years longer than the State of Dade, which seceded from the State of Georgia in 1860 and only officially rejoined it 4 July 1945.

On 1 June 1862, the new regiment, or in some views the old regiment resurrected, officially began operations, starting with recruiting.  Officially, the regiment was designated the 7th Tennessee Volunteers, but to distinguish it from an exactly like named regiment in West Tennessee, it was often referred to in reports and dispatches as the 7th East Tennessee Volunteers.  The initial command staff were Col. William Clift, Lt. Col. Alexander Hoagland, and Major Robert Sullivan; both of the latter two offers were regular army.  Col. Clift’s former militia lieutenant colonel, William C. Shelton, was now captain of one of the companies.

By early August, Clift and his officers and men had recruited five hundred troops and were recruiting more.  Word had reached Knoxville, and the Department of East Tennessee (upgraded from a district) there sent out two regiments of cavalry to once again take care of the “Clift problem”.  Because so many of his men, including Lt. Col. Hoagland, were out recruiting in the countryside, Clift only had 250 at the fort, mostly untrained.  With the approach of the Confederates, two hundred of these fled, leaving fifty facing off against some 1800.  An hour later, Clift led the twenty-some odd men remaining (the rest had already fled) in retreat.  Thus was the Battle of Huntsville, 9 August 1862.

The 7th Tennessee Volunteers fought occasional skirmishes with Champ Ferguson’s band of Confederate bushwackers, and very likely also engaged Col. Alfred Vaughn’s 13th Tennessee Infantry, PACS (Provisional Army of the Confederate States).  They also took part in the chase of Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan’s command on its third raid into Kentucky in a temporary brigade commanded by Col. William A. Hoskins along with the 12th Kentucky Volunteer Infantry and the 16th Kentucky Volunteer Infantry regiments.  This was according to a dispatch by Col. Hoskins on 26 December 1862.

On the same day at Col. Hoskins dispatch, Clift received orders from the War Department that his regiment be disbanded and its men reassigned to the 8th and 10th Tennessee Volunteer Infantry Regiments.  The next month, Col Clift and his command staff traveled to Nashville to appeal the order with Maj. Gen. William Rosecrans, commander of the Department of the Cumberland.  After a confusing series of dispatches, Clift and the 7th Tennessee Volunteers found themselves bivouacked at Camp Nelson in southern Jessamine County, Kentucky in late May 1863.  On 27 May 1863, Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside, commander of the Department of the Ohio, ordered the disbandment of the regiment and reallocation of its officers and men by 31 July 1863.

Some accounts report that the whole regiment merged with the 8th Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, but that is not the case.  However, Cos. A and F did so, in fact, in their entirety, complete with their commanding officers.  The fifty troopers of the regiment’s small cavalry component were distributed among Cos. A, E, and G, 11th Tennessee Volunteer Cavalry.  Other men of the regiment were transferred to Co. I, 1st Tennessee Volunteer Infantry; Co. I, 5th Tennessee Volunteer Infantry; and Co. I, 2nd Tennessee Volunteer Infantry. 

On 21 August 1863, Col. Clift himself was assigned to the staff of Brig. Gen. John M. Shackleford of the 3rd Brigade, 4th Division, XXIII Corps, Army of the Ohio.  Shackleford put Clift in charge of the advance guard and pioneers corps from Crab Orchard, Kentucky, to Kingston, Tennessee. 

After Rosecrans’ defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga that September, Clift , Burnside placed Clift in charge of the courier line between his own besieged Army of the Ohio at Knoxville and the besieged Army of the Cumberland at Chattanooga.  On 14 October, he was captured by Confederate troops, according to one account (which may be apocryphal), led by his own son, Maj. Moses H. Clift.  Held in prison in Atlanta, Georgia, he escaped in December, and was smuggled by slaves and free Afro-Americans back to Union lines via the Underground Railroad.  Pro-slavery before this experience, he became an outspoken emancipationist thereafter.

Roster of the 7th Tennessee Volunteer Infantry, USA

When Brig. Gen. Marcus Wright compiled records for his book, Tennessee in the War, 1861-1865 (1908), he treated this regiment as if it were in unbroken continuation with its predecessor, the 7th Tennessee Federal Militia, giving its dates for existence 10 August 1861-1 June 1863, but here listed are just those from the regiment raised beginning 1 June 1862.  There is no roster of the regiment, and these names were culled from The Roster of Union Soldiers, 1861-1865, in which they were listed alphabetically by state (38,000 in Tennessee).  A week after painstakingly compiling this list, I discovered nearly the same thing compiled for the Scott County Historical Society by Roy Paul in Scott County in the Civil War, which I then compared.

Letters in parentheses following a name denote previous companies within the regiment, if any.

Regimental command

Col. Willam Clift
Lt. Col. Alexander Hoagland
Maj. James S. Duncan (2)
Maj. Robert Sullivan (1)
1st Lt. William Fleming
1st Lt. Clement H. Saffel, Adjutant
1st Lt. Jason J. Palmer, Quartermaster (2)
1st Lt. John T. James, Quartermaster (1)
Sgt. John McFarland, Commissary

Company A

Capt. John Morgan (2)
Capt. Adison B. McCalib (1)
1st Lt. James T. Harris
Sgt. William L. Blankenship
Sgt. Andrew B. Bridges
Sgt. William Collet
Sgt. Thomas G. Frazier
Sgt. William J. Kelley
Sgt. Samuel W. Marvin
Cpl. William J. Barnes
Cpl. James A. Carroll
Cpl. Henry Dash
Cpl. William D. Deford
Cpl. Morgan Hall
Cpl. John Jerdon
Cpl. Joseph P. Keener
Cpl. George O’Neal
Cpl. Samuel Pair
Cpl. Oliver A. Posey
Cpl. Charles Temple
Cpl. William A. Wright
Pvt. John W. Alkorn
Pvt. James Atkins
Pvt. Zan Atkins
Pvt. George W. Bogart
Pvt. David Brown
Pvt. John Burchfield
Pvt. John R. Burk
Pvt. William Carter
Pvt. Isaac F. Cartwright
Pvt. Pierson B. Casteele
Pvt. Elmore W. Colville
Pvt. George W. Darrall
Pvt. Daniel W. Davis
Pvt. James Davis
Pvt. John W. Davis
Pvt. James Doyle
Pvt. Elijah Edwards
Pvt. Benjamin F. Elliot
Pvt. Zachariah Evans
Pvt. Robert W. Fan
Pvt. John Ferris
Pvt. William W. Finley
Pvt. Gilbert R. Frazier
Pvt. Onslow G. Frazier
Pvt. Julian T. Frields
Pvt. Thomas W. Garner
Pvt. Rease B. Gilbert

Pvt. Gilbert H. Golyhorn
Pvt. Francis M. Harrold
Pvt. Elias Henderson
Pvt. Elwood D. Herald
Pvt. Leonard A. Herald
Pvt. Luke G. Herald
Pvt. Marian Herald
Pvt. Thomas Hodgson
Pvt. William H. Hughes
Pvt. Andrew L. Hunt
Pvt. Simon Ingalls
Pvt. Andrew Jackson
Pvt. Andrew W. Johnson
Pvt. Willard H. Johnson
Pvt. William L. Jones (Co. E)
Pvt. Johnigan Joseph
Pvt. David N. Kelley
Pvt. Eli Kelley
Pvt. James J. Kelley
Pvt. William T. Kelley
Pvt. John Kimbro
Pvt. William Kimbro
Pvt. William Lacy
Pvt. Isaac Lemons
Pvt. Jacob M. Lemons
Pvt. Reason M.C. Lewis
Pvt. John S. Long
Pvt. William H. Louis
Pvt. James D. Lusk (Co. C)
Pvt. Levander C. Lusk
Pvt. Samuel J. Lusk
Pvt. William H. Mannis
Pvt. David Mannon
Pvt. George Mannon
Pvt. Peter Marroon
Pvt. Samuel McCaney
Pvt. Henry McClain
Pvt. Merrit Milton
Pvt. Benjamin Monroe
Pvt. William W. Moore (Co. F)
Pvt. William C. Morris
Pvt. Francis M. Mullens
Pvt. William Murphy
Pvt. Samuel Norman
Pvt. James C. Parks (Co. H)
Pvt. William L. Posey
Pvt. David E. Ruble
Pvt. James Russell
Pvt. Martin V. Russell
Pvt. Charles L. Shacks
Pvt. George M. Smith
Pvt. William N. Stuart
Pvt. John Swafford
Pvt. William S. Swafford
Pvt. Thomas Trewhite
Pvt. Edward Vann
Pvt. John A. Vicory
Pvt. Francis M. West
Pvt. Jonathan White
Pvt. William J. White
Pvt. Charles Wiget

Company B

Capt. William B. Shelton
1st Lt. Robert H. McPherson
2nd Lt. James Hooper
1st Sgt. Francis C. Johnston
Sgt. Archibald Fitzgerald
Sgt. William Hooper
Sgt. Thomas J. Weir
Sgt. James P. Willis
Cpl. Warren N. Eaton
Cpl. Eli B. Fitsgerald
Cpl. David G. Foster
Cpl. Henry C. Francisco
Cpl. John R. Guffey
Cpl. John H. R. McPherson
Cpl. George M.D. Shelton
Pvt. William A. Allen
Pvt. George R. Atchley
Pvt. James M. Cavet
Pvt. Eli Cleveland
Pvt. Andrew J. Cole
Pvt. Troy Colens
Pvt. William Crawford
Pvt. Anderson F. Dotson
Pvt. Joseph Duncan
Pvt. Robert D. Eaton
Pvt. John L. Farmer
Pvt. Richard Farmer
Pvt. William Farmer
Pvt. Elias J. Farris
Pvt. Calloway Felt
Pvt. Squire Fitzgerald
Pvt. George Flippin
Pvt. Robert Francisco
Pvt. Gilbert H. Golyhorn
Pvt. Marian F. Graham
Pvt. Samuel J. Graham
Pvt. Joel K. Green
Pvt. Alex L. Grigsby
Pvt. James W. Grisham
Pvt. Joseph Grisham
Pvt. Richard Grisham
Pvt. James A. Guffey
Pvt. Joseph C. Gusham
Pvt. Henry Hamilton
Pvt. John B. Hamilton
Pvt. Jonathan H. Hamilton
Pvt. Robert N. Hamilton
Pvt. Rice Hickman
Pvt. Emanuel B. Jett
Pvt. Clinton Jock
Pvt. Samuel F. King
Pvt. Isaac B. Kirkpatrick
Pvt. Zedric Lawson
Pvt. Edward Lee (Co. F)
Pvt. Jesse C. Lee
Pvt. Benjamin L. Marr
Pvt. William Marr
Pvt. Samuel Massy
Pvt. William C. McAmis
Pvt. Marcus Mcclure
Pvt. Jasper McDuffie
Pvt. Abner H. McEwen
Pvt. Alex A. McEwen
Pvt. Rufus G. McEwen
Pvt. Martin Milliway
Pvt. Henry Newberry
Pvt. James H. Nicker
Pvt. Elijah M. Norville
Pvt. William A. Pearce
Pvt. Andrew H. Plank
Pvt. William J. Plank
Pvt. John N. Rodgers
Pvt. Samuel Rolston
Pvt. James B. Ross
Pvt. Thomas J. Ross
Pvt. William Shewbird
Pvt. Isaac L. Smart
Pvt. Thomas Spurgeon
Pvt. Benjamin F. Staggs
Pvt. Samuel M. Staggs
Pvt. Thomas J. Taylor
Pvt. Isaac Thompson
Pvt. Thomas H. Tucker
Pvt. Samuel H. Weir
Pvt. John Wilson
Pvt. Robert D. Wilson
Pvt. Joseph Winston
Pvt. Thomas Wooden
Pvt. John Woods

Company C

Capt. Hiram Mahaffe (2)
Capt. William H.H. Robbins (1)
1st Lt. James H. Taylor (Co. G)
1st Lt. Asa Newport
2nd Lt. Ezekial Newport Sr.
Sgt. Matthew P. Davis
Sgt. William H. Williams
Cpl. William Barnes
Cpl. Pleasant W. Beaty
Cpl. Thomas Z. Gilbert
Cpl. Little Berry Goad
Cpl. David S. Jinkins
Pvt. John D. Able
Pvt. John Baty
Pvt. Alexander Beaty
Pvt. Jack P. Boswell
Pvt. Pleasant Bowling
Pvt. William Bowling
Pvt. James Bruner
Pvt. William Bruner
Pvt. John Burton
Pvt. James Byerly
Pvt. William Byerly
Pvt. John Choat
Pvt. Josiah Couch
Pvt. John Cross
Pvt. Stephen E. Davis
Pvt. Welcome H. Davis
Pvt. Jonathan Emory (Co. A)
Pvt. William W. Emory
Pvt. George W. Everett
Pvt. Henry Flowers
Pvt. Bennett S. Frederick
Pvt. Solomon Good
Pvt. Alfred Gowen
Pvt. Dodson G. Gowen (Co. A)
Pvt. Francis M. Gowen
Pvt. Jefferson Gowen
Pvt. Franklin Hammons
Pvt. Russell Hammons
Pvt. John Henry
Pvt. Thhomas Hix
Pvt. William Hodgon
Pvt. Milburn Hogue
Pvt. Rufus C. Hughes
Pvt. Uriah Hunycut
Pvt. William R. Hunycut
Pvt. Jasper Jeffers
Pvt. Marion Jeffers
Pvt. Elisha Jones
Pvt. Miller Jones
Pvt. William Jones
Pvt. Cornelius Kelly
Pvt. Mithcell Layman
Pvt. Preston Logan
Pvt. Samuel Long
Pvt. Julius Mannan
Pvt. Cornelius Manning
Pvt. Samuel Manning (Co. H)
Pvt. Francis M. McDonald
Pvt. John A. Miles
Pvt. Samuel D. Miles (Co. H)
Pvt. James Miller (Co. B)
Pvt. Christopher Myers (Co. B)
Pvt. James Neily
Pvt. Stephen Nelson (Co. B)
Pvt. Calvin Newport
Pvt. Ezekial Newport, Jr.
Pvt. Fielding Newport
Pvt. James Newport
Pvt. John Newport
Pvt. Richard Newport
Pvt. John Newton
Pvt. James L. Parkham
Pvt. Jacob Parks
Pvt. John N. Pendergrass
Pvt. William Phillips
Pvt. John M. Pierce
Pvt. Thomas D. Pierce (Co. B)
Pvt. William Pierce
Pvt. James M. Reynolds
Pvt. James Roark Jr.
Pvt. James W. Roark
Pvt. William C. Roark
Pvt. Jordan Rogers
Pvt. William Rogers
Pvt. William L. Rolston
Pvt. James Romines (Co. B)
Pvt. Fountain Sexton
Pvt. Riley Shannon
Pvt. George Shavess
Pvt. John Shavess
Pvt. Austin L. Shipley
Pvt. Alexander Shipman
Pvt. Doug Shubert
Pvt. Henry M. Shubert
Pvt. Charles Sleeper
Pvt. Daniel Smith
Pvt. Elijah Smith
Pvt. William Smithers
Pvt. James Stevenson
Pvt. Daniel Walker
Pvt. James Ward
Pvt. William A. West
Pvt. William A. Wright

Company E

Capt. William H.H. Robbins
1st Lt. Preston Huff (Co. C)
2nd Lt. Andrew Huff (Co. C)
Sgt. William Newport (Co. C)
Sgt. William Walker
Sgt. Jonathan Williams
Sgt. George W. Rich
Cpl. Pleasant W. Beaty
Cpl. David M. Cowan
Cpl. Thomas J. Crockett
Cpl. Hiram Sloan
Cpl. James Sloan
Cpl. Alexander Smith
Cpl. Fountain F. Wilson
Pvt. Andrew Anderson
Pvt. William Ayers
Pvt. John M. Baty (Co. F)
Pvt. Alexander Beaty (Co. C)
Pvt. Granville Beaty
Pvt. James Bell
Pvt. John Bell
Pvt. Chamberlain Bilberry
Pvt. James Boophet
Pvt. John Brown
Pvt. John H. Brown
Pvt. Robert Cliborn
Pvt. David M. Cowan (Co. C)
Pvt. Alexander Crabtree
Pvt. John Crabtree
Pvt. Riley Davis
Pvt. William R. Davis
Pvt. Jeremiah Delk
Pvt. William Delk
Pvt. Rufus Dowdy
Pvt. Jesse Downs
Pvt. William A. Edwards (Co. F)
Pvt. John Fuston
Pvt. Shelby Gregory
Pvt. Champion Guffery
Pvt. James Harrand
Pvt. James Hicks (Co. F)
Pvt. A.M. Hombs
Pvt. William H. Huff (Co. C)
Pvt. Rod H. Hundley
Pvt. John Jentry
Pvt. William Jentry
Pvt. Henry Levingston
Pvt. John Males
Pvt. Jackson Maples
Pvt. John Neal
Pvt. Charles Owens
Pvt. John Peavyhouse
Pvt. Granville C. Perdew (Co. C)
Pvt. Henry Perdue
Pvt. Milton Perdue Jr.
Pvt. Jonathan Pike
Pvt. James Piles
Pvt. Levi Piles
Pvt. Sherod Piles
Pvt. Jacob Pressley
Pvt. James Rason
Pvt. William Romage
Pvt. George W. Sharp
Pvt. Braxton Simpson
Pvt. William Simpson
Pvt. Emanuel Smith
Pvt. George Smith
Pvt. James M. Smith
Pvt. Samuel Smith
Pvt. John H. Stevens
Pvt. Drew Struks
Pvt. Asberry Tabor
Pvt. Thomas N. Tabor
Pvt. Joseph Troxwell
Pvt. Richard Uptigrove
Pvt. James Victory
Pvt. Lewis Weston
Pvt. Joseph Whitehead
Pvt. Mathias Whitehead
Pvt. Samuel Whitehead
Pvt. Francis Williams
Pvt. James H. Williams
Pvt. Theophilus Williams
Pvt. John Zachery

Company F

Capt. James Wilson (2)
Capt. Hiram Mahaffe (1)
1st Lt. John Newport (Cos. C, E)
Lt. Thomas Looper
Sgt. John Downs
Sgt. Joseph Griffith Jr.
Sgt. William Newport
Sgt. Martin Redman
Cpl. James Bunch
Cpl. Houston Fields
Cpl. Julian F. Frields
Pvt. John Ambourn
Pvt. Andrew Anderson
Pvt. Eason Anderson
Pvt. John C. Barger
Pvt. James Bird
Pvt. William Boswell (Co. A)
Pvt. Andrew J. Brown
Pvt. Thomas Brown
Pvt. John Bunch
Pvt. Columbus Campbell
Pvt. George W. Carpenter
Pvt. William Cobb
Pvt. Allen Cooper
Pvt. John Davis
Pvt. David Downs
Pvt. James F. Early
Pvt. Lindsey H. Fields
Pvt. James M. Frields
Pvt. David Fulton
Pvt. Tandy Gallimore
Pvt. Joel K. Gearen
Pvt. Anderson Grasham
Pvt. Allen Griffith
Pvt. John Griffith
Pvt. Joseph Griffith Sr.
Pvt. Joseph Griffith Jr.
Pvt. Richard Griffith
Pvt. William Griffith
Pvt. Mehlyn Hancock
Pvt. David Hill
Pvt. W.A. Hood
Pvt. James Huckeby
Pvt. Robert Huckeby
Pvt. John Hughes
Pvt. George M. Jeffers
Pvt. Francis M. Jenkins
Pvt. Marion Johnson
Pvt. John J. Jordan
Pvt. Malon H. Kindred
Pvt. William B. Kindred
Pvt. William B. Lane
Pvt. Henry Langly
Pvt. William Lewallen
Pvt. Thomas M. Linggo
Pvt. Emerson Looper
Pvt. Granville Looper
Pvt. John Looper
Pvt. Zachariah Lord
Pvt. Thomas J. Loyd
Pvt. George W. Maxwell (Co. B)
Pvt. John McGee
Pvt. Richard McGee
Pvt. James P. McKinney
Pvt. John Newport
Pvt. Isaac Overton
Pvt. Abraham Phillis
Pvt. Brady Price
Pvt. Elijah B. Queen
Pvt. Allen Reed
Pvt. Gilbert Reed
Pvt. Isaac Resedon
Pvt. Robert M. Riddle
Pvt. Willis R. Right
Pvt. Ferdon A. Roberts
Pvt. James Selers
Pvt. Andrew Sexton
Pvt. Andrew J. Shelton
Pvt. George Shoat
Pvt. John Shoat
Pvt. Richard Stringfield
Pvt. Elijah Terry
Pvt. George W. Underwood
Pvt. Edward Vann
Pvt. Jonathan Voils
Pvt. William Voils
Pvt. Charles White
Pvt. John E. White

Company G

Capt. William Cotton
1st Lt. William Cecill
Lt. Emanuel Sexton
Sgt. Joshua D. Bray
Sgt. William M. Chitwood
Sgt. Isaac N. Hansard
Cpl. G.P. Holmes
Pvt. James Ashley
Pvt. John H. Bray
Pvt. Joseph D. Bray
Pvt. Perry Bray
Pvt. Andrew Brown
Pvt. Thomas Brown
Pvt. John Bunch
Pvt. John M. Burnard
Pvt. David H. Burwick
Pvt. John M. Burwick
Pvt. Isaac Cecill
Pvt. Granville Chitwood
Pvt. Hugh W. Cross
Pvt. John Donty
Pvt. Isaac Dougherty
Pvt. John Dougherty (Co. C)
Pvt. John Dougherty Sr.
Pvt. Timothy Dwyer
Pvt. Charles S. Francis
Pvt. Jacob Hammon
Pvt. Malin Hancock
Pvt. Jasper Harris
Pvt. Alexander L. Hickman
Pvt. William Hubbs
Pvt. William Johnson
Pvt. Ewell Keeton
Pvt. Calvin Lewis
Pvt. Dockter Lewis
Pvt. Jesse Lewis
Pvt. William Lewis
Pvt. John Litton (Co. C)
Pvt. William Luttwell
Pvt. James Mabery
Pvt. Reuben Markum
Pvt. William Mayberry
Pvt. Allen McDonald
Pvt. William H. Moore
Philip Myers (Co. F)
Pvt. James G. Newel (Cos. A, F)
Pvt. Emanuel Phillips (Co. F)
Pvt. Riley Phillips
Pvt. Winford Phillips
Pvt. David H. Porter
Pvt. James K. Porter
Pvt. James M.O. Riddle
Pvt. Marion H. Riddle
Pvt. James Russell
Pvt. Orson A. Shipley
Pvt. Levi Silcox
Pvt. William Smith
Pvt. Thomas Smither
Pvt. William Smithers
Pvt. James Thompson
Pvt. Lorenzo D. Thompson (Co. F)
Pvt. George Underwood
Pvt. John C. Webb
Pvt. Charles H. West
Pvt. Reason West
Pvt. Reuben West
Pvt. Wesley West Sr.
Pvt. Wesley West Jr.
Pvt. William Wilcox
Pvt. James G. Wilson

Company H

Capt. Adison McCalib (2) (Co. A)
2nd Lt. John Monger (Co. A)
Sgt. Sullivan W. Davis
Sgt. William W. Lewis
Sgt. Lattimore G. Talley
Cpl. Alfred M. Bettis (Co. A)
Cpl. John P. Cannon (Co. A)
Cpl. William A. Wright
Pvt. Levi M. Adkins
Pvt. Spencer A. Adkinson
Pvt. Jesse W. Alcorn
Pvt. William F. Allen (Co. A)
Pvt. Daniel Atchley
Pvt. Ansel Bandy
Pvt. John Bandy (Co. B)
Pvt. Solomon Bell
Pvt. Howell Bettis (Co. A)
Pvt. James M. Bly
Pvt. Jacob C. Borin
Pvt. Jesse Bryant (Co. A)
Pvt. James W. Burk
Pvt. John P. Cannon
Pvt. Johnathan Chadwick
Pvt. William O. Chadwick
Pvt. John Chapman
Pvt. John R. Clayton (Co. A)
Pvt. Benjamin C. Coleman (Co. A)
Pvt. John Davis
Pvt. Gideon T. Denton
Pvt. James C. Denton
Pvt. Elisha Edwards
Pvt. George W. Essey
Pvt. Richard Fairbanks
Pvt. David Fulton
Pvt. Nicholas G. Givens (Co. C)
Pvt. Rolon Green
Pvt. George Gregory
Pvt. Meredith Hart
Pvt. George W. Hasler
Pvt. James Heaton (Co. A)
Pvt. George W. Herron
Pvt. Preston Hoar
Pvt. Howell Hodges
Pvt. William Hodgson
Pvt. Joel W. Hoge
Pvt. David A. Hunt
Pvt. John M. Jackson
Pvt. Daniel Jones
Pvt. William T. Jones
Pvt. Eulenberg Keeton
Pvt. Joseph A. Lacey
Pvt. Thomas T. Lacy
Pvt. William P. Lamerrick
Pvt. Isaac Layman
Pvt. George W. Lewis
Pvt. Lafayette H. Lewis (Co. A)
Pvt. William H.H. Lewis
Pvt. William F. Lomenick (Co. A)
Pvt. William D. Losley
Pvt. Isaac Lowe (Co. A)
Pvt. Wiley Lowe
Pvt. John Luther
Pvt. Abanah Mahan
Pvt. Alex Mahan
Pvt. Felix H. Mahan
Pvt. Benjamin Maning
Pvt. Reason Marcum
Pvt. Samuel R. Martin (Co. A)
Pvt. William R. Masey
Pvt. William R. Mayberry (Co. A)
Pvt. David McAndrews
Pvt. Whitley Melton (Co. A)
Pvt. Samuel Miles
Pvt. James Miliken
Pvt. William H. Morgan
Pvt. Francis Mullens
Pvt. Francis Newton (Co. A)
Pvt. James C. Parks (Co. A)
Pvt. Isam Oenney (Co. A)
Pvt. Benjamin Posey (Co. A)
Pvt. William N. Prichard (Co. F)
Pvt. Andrew J.M. Pullen (Co. A)
Pvt. James A. Roberts
Pvt. William H. Rose
Pvt. Wyatt Ross
Pvt. Charles T. Sparks
Pvt. David Stevenson
Pvt. James Stone
Pvt. Charles G. Stultz
Pvt. Benjamin R. Talley
Pvt. Dudley H. Talley
Pvt. Leonidas B. Thompson
Pvt. Samuel A. Thornton
Pvt. Rufus Underwood
Pvt. Jeff C. Walker
Pvt. John Walker
Pvt. Pleasant W. West
Pvt. Solomon Young


Company Unknown

Cpl. William L. Morris
Pvt. Lorenzo Canada
Pvt. John Huffaker
Pvt. Calvin Letner
Pvt. Robert Nelson
Pvt. Jason Palmer
Pvt. Arthur Peters
Pvt. William R. Redding
Pvt. William Smith
Pvt. Nathan Williams